2015 Article | Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention

A Cross Sectional Study of Kretek Smoking in Indonesia as a Major Risk to Public Health

By Krishna Palipudi, Lazarous Mbulo, Soewarte Kosen, Aditama Tjandra, Kadarmanto, Farukh Qureshi, Linda Andes, Dhirendra N Sinha, Samira Asma

Tobacco smoking is a major cause of preventable disease and death worldwide. Kreteks are clove-flavored cigarettes made from a combination of tobacco and ground-clove mixed with a sauce, smoked widely in Indonesia. Because health and social consequences of kretek smoking are potentially as great as those of traditional cigarettes, this study examines the prevalence of kretek smoking in Indonesia and associated risk factors.

2019 Research Paper | Tobacco Induced Diseases

Awareness and use of e-cigarettes among urban residents in China

By Luhua Zhao, Lazarous Mbulo, Krishna Palipudi, Jijiang Wang, Brian King

This study examined the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette awareness and use among urban residents in China. Data came from the China City Adult Tobacco Survey (CCATS), a city-representative household survey conducted using electronic tablets during 2013–2014 in 14 major Chinese cities.

2015 Brief | Preventing Chronic Disease

The Process of Cessation Among Current Tobacco Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis From 21 Countries, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009–2013

By Lazarous Mbulo, Krishna M. Palipudi, Glenda Nelson-Blutcher, Komanduri S. Murty, Samira Asma

We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage.

2018 Brief Report | Tobacco Control

Cigarettes point of purchase patterns in 19 lowincome and middle-income countries: Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2008–2012

By Lazarous Mbulo, Judy Kruger, Jason Hsia, Shaoman Yin, Simone Salandy, Elizabeth N Orlan, Israel Agaku, Kurt M Ribisl

There is little information on cigarette purchasing behavior among smokers globally. Understanding cigarette purchase and point-of sale patterns can help guide the development and implementation of tobacco-control strategies in retail environments. The purpose of this study was to identify where adults in 19 countries last purchased cigarettes.

2016 Brief Report | Nicotine & Tobacco Research

Awareness and Current Use of Electronic Cigarettes in Indonesia, Malaysia, Qatar, and Greece: Findings From 2011–2013 Global Adult Tobacco Surveys

By Krishna Mohan Palipudi, Lazarous Mbulo, Jeremy Morton, Lazarous Mbulo, Rebecca Bunnell, et al.

Increases in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) awareness and current use have been documented in high income countries but less is known about middle and low income countries. Nationally representative household survey data from the first four Global Adult Tobacco Surveys to assess e-cigarettes were analyzed, including Indonesia (2011), Malaysia (2011), Qatar (2013), and Greece (2013). Correlates of e-cigarette awareness and current use were calculated. Sample sizes for Greece and Qatar allowed for further analysis of e-cigarette users.

2018 MMWR | Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Current Tobacco Smoking, Quit Attempts, and Knowledge About Smoking Risks Among Persons Aged ≥15 Years — Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 28 Countries, 2008–2016

By Indu B. Ahluwalia, Tenecia Smith, René A. Arrazola, Krishna M. Palipudi, Isabel Garcia de Quevedo, Vinayak M. Prasad, Alison Commar, Kerstin Schotte, Paul David Garwood, Brian S. Armour

CDC analyzed 2008–2016 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data from 28 countries to assess tobacco smoking prevalence, quit attempts, and knowledge about tobacco smoking risks among persons aged ≥15 years.

2018 Review | International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

The Progress of Tobacco Control Research in Sub-Saharan Africa in the Past 50 Years: A Systematic Review of the Design and Methods of the Studies

By Hadii M. Mamudu, Pooja Subedi, Ali E. Alamin, Sreenivas P. Veeranki, Daniel Owusu, Amy Poole, Lazarous Mbulo, A.E. Ogwell Ouma, Adekunle Oke

Over one billion of the world’s population are smokers, with increasing tobacco use in low and middle-income countries. However, information about the methodology of studies on tobacco control is limited. We conducted a literature search to examine and evaluate the methodological designs of published tobacco research in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) over the past 50 years.

2015 Article | Indian Journal of Medical Research

Widespread inequalities in smoking & smokeless tobacco consumption across wealth quintiles in States of India: Need for targeted interventions

By J.S. Thakur, Shankar Prinja, Nidhi Bhatnagar, Saroj Kumar Rana, Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Poonam Khetarpal Singh

India is a large country with each state having distinct social, cultural and economic characteristics. Tobacco epidemic is not uniform across the country. There are wide variations in tobacco consumption across age, sex, regions and socio-economic classes. This study was conducted to understand the wide inequalities in patterns of smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption across various states of India.

2017 Article | Preventive Medicine

Changes in cigarette prices, affordability, and brand-tier consumption after a tobacco tax increase in Thailand: Evidence from the Global Adult Tobacco Surveys, 2009 and 2011

By Muhammad Jami Husain, Deliana Kostova, Lazarous Mbulo, Sarunya Benjakul, Mondha Kengganpanich, Linda Andes

Using data from 2009 and 2011 Global Adult Tobacco Surveys in Thailand, we estimated unadjusted changes in cigarette prices paid, cigarette affordability, and consumption of cigarettes in three price categories classified as upper-, middle-, and lower-priced brand tiers (or price tertiles).

2017 Article | Pan African Medical Journal

Multilevel analysis of school anti-smoking education and current cigarette use among South African students

By Brandon Talley, Katherine Masyn, Rachna Chandora, Alana Vivolo-Kantor

South Africa (SA) implemented the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) four times between 1999 and 2011. Data from the four surveys indicated that downward trends in cigarette use among students may have stalled. Understanding the effect of school anti-smoking education on current smoking among students within schools and variability across schools may provide important insights into policies aimed at preventing or reducing tobacco use among students.

2014 Article | The European Journal of Health Economics

A duration analysis of the role of cigarette prices on smoking initiation and cessation in developing countries

By Deliana Kostova, Frank J. Chaloupka, Ce Shang

This study evaluates the impact of cigarette prices on smoking initiation and cessation among adults in two pooled samples of 6 low- to lower-middle income countries (LMICs) and 8 upper-middle income countries (UMICs).

2015 Research Paper | Tobacco Control

Warning about the harms of tobacco use in 22 countries: findings from a cross-sectional household survey

By John J Chiosi, Linda Andes, Samira Asma, Krishna Palipudi, Tim McAfee, GATS Regional and Country Authors; On behalf of the GATS Collaborative Group

We sought to estimate levels of knowledge about tobacco-related diseases in 22 countries and determine the factors associated with differences in knowledge.

2017 International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

The Association between Warning Label Requirements and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Education-Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

By Ce Shang, Jidong Huang, Kai-Wen Cheng, Yanyun He, Frank J. Chaloupka

This study examined how the association between large pictorial warnings, those covering greater than or equal to 50% of the front and back of the package, and the prevalence of cigarette smoking varies by educational attainment.

2017 Article | Preventing Chronic Disease

Contrasting Trends of Smoking Cessation Status: Insights From the Stages of Change Theory Using Repeat Data From the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Thailand (2009 and 2011) and Turkey (2008 and 2012)

By Lazarous Mbulo, Komanduri S. Murty, Muhammad Jami Husain, Rizwan Bashir, Glenda Blutcher-Nelson, et al.

The World Health Organization recommends that smokers be offered help to quit. A better understanding of smokers’ interest in and commitment to quitting could guide tobacco control efforts. We assessed temporal differences in stages of change toward quitting among smokers in Thailand and Turkey.

2017 MMWR | Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Current Tobacco Smoking and Desire to Quit Smoking Among Students Aged 13–15 Years — Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 61 Countries, 2012–2015

By René A. Arrazola, Indu B. Ahluwalia, Eugene Pun, Isabel Garcia de Quevedo, Stephen Babb, Brian S. Armour

CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 61 countries across the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions from 2012 to 2015 to examine the prevalence of current tobacco smoking and desire to quit smoking among students aged 13–15 years.

2016 Article | Tobacco Control

Secondhand smoke exposure at home among one billion children in 21 countries: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

By Lazarous Mbulo, Krishna Mohan Palipudi, Linda Andes, Jeremy Morton, Rizwan Bashir, et al.

Children are vulnerable to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure because of limited control over their indoor environment. Homes remain the major place where children may be exposed to SHS. Our study examines the magnitude, patterns and determinants of SHS exposure in the home among children in 21 low- and middle-income countries.

2019 MMWR | Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Tobacco Use and Tobacco-Related Behaviors — 11 Countries, 2008–2017

By Indu B. Ahluwalia, René A. Arrazola, Luhua Zhao, Jing Shi, Anna Dean, Edward Rainey, Krishna Palipudi, Evelyn Twentyman, Brian S. Armour

CDC analyzed data from 11 countries that completed two or more rounds of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) during 2008–2017.